This is just a starter for Arduinos. Feel free to comment and I will add to this.
the starting point with Arduino is to install the software. Go to https://www.arduino.cc/en/Main/Software. Remember to set the correct com port and the board type.
The IDE has a series of sample projects to get started. The best way to start is to try out the example blink program. It flashes the onboard LED on pin 13. Once you have it going try changing the delay to make the LED flash at different rates. Windows 7 upwards should automatically download the driver, just give it a few minutes. If this don’t work you can download the drivers from http://www.microcontrols.org/arduino-uno-clone-ch340-ch341-chipset-usb-drivers/